Abstract: Urban public transportation plays an increasingly important role in urban transportation in China. Bus passenger flow information is the basis of bus dispatch management and line network optimization. This report describes three bus passenger flow statistics programs.
First, the project background (bus people counter, bus passenger counter)
Along with the continuous development of China's urbanization, the increasing urban population has made traffic pressures in large and medium-sized cities more and more
The bigger the development, the development of big buses is not only the need for people to travel, but also the need to build a low-carbon city. GPS/GPRS/3G and other technologies have been widely used in bus dispatching, and can monitor the position and speed of vehicles in real time.
Degree, intelligent reporting, and operational safety management have played a big role. However, the real-time collection of bus passenger flow information has always been a problem that plagues the industry, accurately collecting real-time passenger information of bus vehicles and information on passengers on the site, thus realizing the development strategy of intelligent public transportation, optimizing bus routes, improving bus operation efficiency, and improving people's satisfaction. To improve the bus sharing rate of residents, this will be the next step to improve the development direction of public transport information, and the only way to achieve intelligent transportation.
At present, the collection methods of bus passenger flow information in major cities in China mainly include stagnation point visual traffic survey method and manual follow-up statistics method. Both methods are manual monitoring methods. In the preparation stage of the investigation, a large amount of organization work needs to be done for the investigators. After the manual survey of bus passenger flow, the workload of data sorting is also very large. The data of manual survey must be edited and refined before data is used. In addition, manual surveys are difficult to guarantee data quality. Due to the long hours of work, investigators must stay in the car at all times and are prone to fatigue and mistakes, such as counting errors when a large number of passengers get on and off the vehicle. The manual passenger flow survey is a very cumbersome and labor-intensive work. It is very difficult to be regular and systematic in the actual operation process. However, urban public transportation is a random service system that changes with passenger flow, road conditions, climate, etc. If the information is not working or the feedback is not timely or accurate, the dispatcher cannot perform effective command and dispatch. Therefore, bus operation information is the basis of the overall bus enterprise management business, and information collection technology can provide support and guarantee for the acquisition and processing of bus information. The comprehensive and accurate grasp of bus passenger flow is the basis of bus management work. It not only provides basis for daily dispatch, but also provides important reference data for network optimization.
Third, bus passenger flow monitoring technology principle (bus people counter, bus passenger counter)
There are three main types of bus passenger flow monitoring technologies commonly used in developed countries in Europe and America: active infrared technology, vehicle weight measurement technology, and 3D image technology. The following is an introduction to the principles of the three technologies:
1. bus people counter, bus passenger counter:
The infrared light curtain passenger flow sensor is installed on the upper part of the front and rear doors of the bus. It emits a certain wavelength of infrared light through a plurality of transmitting heads to cover a certain area, and detects the light reflected from the passenger through the sensor, thereby automatically identifying the direction and number of passengers getting on and off the vehicle. . Due to the use of its own light source, it is not susceptible to external ambient temperature and light conditions.
The impact can be determined by the direction of getting on and off, can achieve higher accuracy, and the accuracy of getting on and off can reach more than 95%.
2. Bus people counter, bus passenger counter:
The current bus suspension has two kinds of air suspension and leaf spring suspension. For air suspension vehicles, the pressure sensor is installed on the air spring of the air spring to detect the pressure of the airbag, and then the airbag support section change curve and temperature compensation are combined. Algorithms such as tilt compensation can calculate the weight of the airbag. For the leaf spring vehicle, by installing a height sensor beside the leaf spring, the deformation amount of the leaf spring after being pressed is detected, and the load bearing weight of the leaf spring can be calculated by combining the pressure deformation curve of the leaf spring and the tilt compensation algorithm.
The vehicle load detection technology can be used to detect the total weight of the passengers and then calculate the average weight of the passengers.
The number of passengers in the cabin is that the advantage of this technology is that the greater the number of people, the higher the detection accuracy, especially when the number of vehicles exceeds 30, the accuracy rate can reach more than 97%.
Bus people counter (bus passenger counter):
3D image recognition technology is a relatively new cutting-edge technology. The 3D sensor can recognize three-dimensional stereo data. The 3D sensor can scan the human body contour under the sensor. Firstly, the human three-dimensional contour data is detected, similar to the hump. The shape of the three-dimensional reflection surface, the microcontroller then through the analysis of the 3D data calculation, which can determine the number of people passing.
At present, 3D technology is very popular, but the technical level of each manufacturer is uneven. Really master 3D technology, there are not many manufacturers that can achieve high accuracy. 3D technology is used to measure bus passenger flow, and the accuracy is generally 90% to 99%. In the meantime, the world's top level manufacturers can achieve 99% accuracy.
Third, the realization of the function (people counter, passenger counter)
The passenger flow monitoring equipment can monitor the number of passengers per bus and the number of passengers at each station in real time. The public transport passenger flow data is urban traffic management, line network optimization, station layout, bus operation scheduling, capacity delivery and public transportation. Important basic information on investment.
The development of intelligent transportation in developed countries in Europe and America is relatively early. Currently, passenger flow counting equipment is applied to most buses in Europe and America. The application of these new technologies will play an important role in creating energy-saving and environmentally friendly cities, improving bus operation efficiency, alleviating urban congestion and improving people's satisfaction. A very big contribution.
The functional value of the bus passenger flow detection system is as follows:
1. The need to create a "bus city" (people counter, passenger counter)
The traffic city assessment target of the Ministry of Communications clearly stated that the public transport informatization construction should count the passenger traffic, and report the bus full load rate data.
2. The need to achieve "smart bus" (people counter, passenger counter)
According to real-time and accurate passenger flow data, reports such as driving plan and departure operation plan can be automatically generated, which can not only realize intelligent dispatch in the true sense, but also meet the needs of public transportation operations, and can follow the characteristics of passenger flow distribution to the personnel of the bus company. The rational allocation of vehicles, materials and other resources enables the company to find the optimal balance between operational input and operational benefits, thus achieving the best match between people, vehicles and lines.
3. Optimize the need for “bus line network” (people counter, passenger counter)
Based on real-time and accurate passenger flow data, a series of data reports such as passenger flow distribution GIS view, section passenger flow map, bus OD, full load rate, travel time, and average distance can be automatically generated. Provide first-hand reference data for the layout, adjustment and optimization of bus group lines, as well as site design and planning, support the network center and related
Scientific development of the work of the road planning department.
4. Develop urban transportation planning needs (people counter, passenger counter)
People are the main body of the city. The distribution of people flow is of course an important basic data for transportation planning and subway line planning. Based on comprehensive and accurate bus passenger flow data, the bus group can not only formulate long-term development plans for bus companies, but also make bus companies and public transportation management departments. The work has become more targeted and can provide important data on the distribution of passenger traffic throughout the city's transportation planning.
5. The meaning of the people on the car (people counter, passenger counter):
The public information platform can be used to publish the full load rate data of the car to the mobile phone and the electronic stop sign. The passenger can not only see the arrival time of the next bus, the current location of the vehicle, but also know the full load rate of the vehicle, which is more convenient for passengers to choose to ride. While balancing the vehicle's capacity, it has improved the satisfaction of the people. This function can be directly felt by the people, it will produce great social benefits, and it also has a positive effect in improving the share of public transport travel.
6. Counter counter (people counter, passenger counter):
The ticket can be monitored by checking the customer traffic data and the actual ticket amount.
7. People counter, passenger counter:
For new energy vehicles, the load data is the key to whether the vehicle controller control strategy is fuel-efficient. However, most manufacturers can only obtain vehicle speed data, and the load data cannot be obtained. The system provides the vehicle with load data that has been difficult to obtain. It can make the control strategy more fuel efficient (or solar terms).